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Muraenesox cinereus (Forsskål, 1775)

Daggertooth pike conger
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Muraenesox cinereus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Muraenesox cinereus (Daggertooth pike conger)
Muraenesox cinereus
Picture by Khalaf, M.A.

Philippines country information

Common names: Banusak, Bayangitan, Daggertooth pike conger
Occurrence: native
Salinity: brackish
Abundance: | Ref:
Importance: commercial | Ref: Ordoñez, J.A., 1985
Aquaculture: commercial | Ref:
Regulations: | Ref:
Uses: no uses
Comments: Reported from Manila Bay; Cagayan; Currimao, Ilocos Norte; Alaminos and Agno River, Pangasinan; Bancal R., near Iba, Zambales; San Miguel Bay; Camarines Sur; Tacloban, Leyte; Iloilo, Panay; Dumaguete, Negros Oriental (Ref. 280). Samar Sea (Ref. 68348).
National Checklist:
Country Information:
National Fisheries Authority:
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: Herre, A.W.C.T., 1959
National Database:

Common names from other countries

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes(genus, species) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Teleostei (teleosts) > Anguilliformes (Eels and morays) > Muraenesocidae (Pike congers)
Etymology: Muraenesox: Latin, muraena = morey eel + Esox, old name for pike (Ref. 45335).
  More on author: Forsskål.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; oceanodromous; depth range ? - 800 m (Ref. 100719), usually ? - 300 m (Ref. 9942).   Subtropical; 47°N - 4°S, 30°E - 143°E (Ref. 54598)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea, Persian Gulf, west coast of India, and Sri Lanka to Fiji and Tuvalu (Ref. 12596), north to Japan and Korea, south to the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819) and northern Australia. Migrated to the Mediterranean via the Suez Canal (Ref. 6724).

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 220 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 559); common length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397); max. reported age: 15 years (Ref. 72462)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Anal spines: 0; Vertebrae: 145 - 159. Snout long; eye diameter 2-2.5 times in snout length; posterior nostrils much closer to eyes than to anterior nostrils; mouth very large; teeth generally large and conspicuous (Ref. 4832). Head broader, interorbital about 8 times in head; lateral-line pores before anus 44-47; dorsal-fin rays before anus 66-78; vertebrae 145-159 (Ref. 9830).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Occurs from the littoral zone to the upper bathy-benthic region (Ref. 9942, 11230). Inhabits soft bottoms (Ref. 11230), also found in estuaries. Sometimes enters freshwater environment (Ref. 9987). Feeds on small bottom fishes and crustaceans. Captured and cultured for fishery in Japan. Marketed mainly fresh (Ref. 7238). Also used as bait for shark fishing (Ref. 2872). Also caught by bag (dol) nets. Used in Chinese medicine (Ref. 12166).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 13 November 2019

CITES (Ref. 128078)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans


Human uses

Fisheries: highly commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; bait: occasionally
FAO(Aquaculture: production; Fisheries: production, species profile; publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 11.6 - 23.2, mean 17.4 (based on 401 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 0.6250   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00437 (0.00171 - 0.01116), b=3.07 (2.85 - 3.29), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.67 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Tmax=15; K=0.19-0.33; Min Rel Fec=153).
Prior r = 0.57, 95% CL = 0.37 - 0.85, Based on 3 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (62 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649):  Very high vulnerability (85 of 100).
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.