Ecology of Mullus surmuletus
Main Ref. Olaso, I. and E. Rodriguez-Marin, 1995
Remarks Abundant near the coast, in the stratum between 10 and 100 m. Occurs on broken and rough grounds but also found over sand and soft bottoms at depths less than 100 m. Depth range from 5-60 m (Ref. 7313) and from 305-409 m in the eastern Ionian Sea (Ref. 56504). Feeds on benthic organisms such as shrimps and amphipods, polychaetes, mollusks, and benthic fishes; also on benthic carnivores that live on or within the bottom substrates (Ref. 44511).

Aquatic zones / Water bodies

Marine - Neritic Marine - Oceanic Brackishwater Freshwater
Marine zones / Brackish and freshwater bodies
  • supra-littoral zone
  • littoral zone
  • sublittoral zone
  • epipelagic
  • mesopelagic
  • epipelagic
  • abyssopelagic
  • hadopelagic
  • estuaries/lagoons/brackish seas
  • mangroves
  • marshes/swamps
  • rivers/streams
  • lakes/ponds
  • caves
  • exclusively in caves
Highighted items on the list are where Mullus surmuletus may be found.


Substrate Hard Bottom;
Substrate Ref.
Special habitats
Special habitats Ref.


Associated with
Association remarks


Feeding type mainly animals (troph. 2.8 and up)
Feeding type Ref. Olaso, I. and E. Rodriguez-Marin, 1995
Feeding habit hunting macrofauna (predator)
Feeding habit Ref.
Trophic Level(s)
Estimation method Original sample Unfished population Remark
Troph s.e. Troph s.e.
From diet composition 3.45 0.29 Troph of juv./adults from 3 studies.
From individual food items 3.46 0.48 Trophic level estimated from a number of food items using a randomized resampling routine.
Ref. Golani, D., 1994
(e.g. 346)
(e.g. cnidaria)
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