Ecology of Heteropneustes fossilis
Main Ref. Rainboth, W.J., 1996
Remarks Found mainly in ponds, ditches, swamps and marshes, but sometimes occurs in muddy rivers. Recorded as having been or being farmed in rice fields (Ref. 119549). Can tolerate slightly brackish water.

Aquatic zones / Water bodies

Marine - Neritic Marine - Oceanic Brackishwater Freshwater
Marine zones / Brackish and freshwater bodies
  • supra-littoral zone
  • littoral zone
  • sublittoral zone
  • epipelagic
  • mesopelagic
  • epipelagic
  • abyssopelagic
  • hadopelagic
  • estuaries/lagoons/brackish seas
  • mangroves
  • marshes/swamps
  • rivers/streams
  • lakes/ponds
  • caves
  • exclusively in caves
Highighted items on the list are where Heteropneustes fossilis may be found.


Substrate Soft Bottom: mud;
Substrate Ref.
Special habitats
Special habitats Ref. Halwart, M. and M.V. Gupta, 2004


Associated with
Association remarks


Feeding type mainly animals (troph. 2.8 and up)
Feeding type Ref. Arunachalam, M., J.A. Johnson, A. Sankaranarayanan, R. Soranam, A. Manimekalan and P.N. Shanthi, 2000
Feeding habit hunting macrofauna (predator)
Feeding habit Ref. Weliange, W.S. and U.S. Amarasinghe, 2007
Trophic Level(s)
Estimation method Original sample Unfished population Remark
Troph s.e. Troph s.e.
From diet composition 3.59 0.28 3.52 0.47 Troph of adults from 3 studies.
From individual food items 3.89 0.63 Trophic level estimated from a number of food items using a randomized resampling routine.
Ref. Weliange, W.S. and U.S. Amarasinghe, 2007
(e.g. 346)
(e.g. cnidaria)
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