Cylix tupareomanaia Short, Trnski & Ngātiwai, 2021
Manaia pygmy pipehorse

Family:  Syngnathidae (Pipefishes and seahorses), subfamily: Syngnathinae
Max. size:  5.55 cm SL (male/unsexed); 3.55 cm SL (female)
Environment:  benthopelagic; marine; depth range 14 - 18 m
Distribution:  Southwest Pacific: New Zealand.
Diagnosis:  This species is distinguished by the following: with a unique anatomical features of the head, including: a distinct, cup-like crest present anterodorsally on the supraoccipital; with large and conspicuous medioventral conical spines on the cleithral symphysis and the first trunk ring between the pectoral-fin bases; with a prominent supraoccipital; continuous cleithrum; prominent supracleithrum; absence of anterior nuchal plate; posterior nuchal plate with bony dorsomedial crest; presence of a large gap between the supraoccipital and posterior nuchal plate; 1-3 dorsal spines at midline of snout, posteriormost of these spines large; a large double and rugose lateral head spine below the cup-like supraoccipital crest; 3 small blunt lateral head spines on operculum; rim of orbit elevated dorsolaterally and strongly ventrally; 2 spines on cleithral ring; large rugose spine anterior to ventral third of pectoral-fin base; moderate-sized spine at ventral extent of head; a small spine posterolateral to the pelvic-fin base; 4 subdorsal spines, forming a square, the dorsal two enlarged (Ref. 125308).
Biology:  This species is observed in mixed habitat on a vertical rock wall covered in encrusting coralline algae, bryozoans, sponges, solitary corals, and turf algae, which faced a rocky outcrop exposed to the open ocean. The rock wall was subject to moderate ocean swell as was evident from the accumulated debris of detached and decomposed algae on the sandy to rubble bottom of the channel at 17-18 m deep. The holotype was collected below the Ecklonia radiata kelp line and it was observed moving about in close proximity to another individual of the same species, which appeared to represent a male-female pair. (Ref. 125308).
IUCN Red List Status: Not Evaluated (N.E.) Ref. (126983)
Threat to humans:  harmless

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