Ikan bertulang rawan (sharks and rays)
(Ground sharks) > Carcharhinidae
Etymology: Carcharhinus: karcharos (Gr.), sharp or jagged; rhinus, an ancient name for sharks, from rhine (Gr.), rasp, both words alluding to a shark's jagged, rasp-like skin. (See ETYFish); galapagensis: -ensis, Latin suffix denoting place: Galapagos Islands, type locality. (See ETYFish).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; laut berasosiasi dengan karang; kisaran kedalaman 1 - 286 m (Ref. 58302), usually 30 - 180 m (Ref. 37816). Tropical; 36°N - 34°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 55181)
Circumtropical with a preference for waters around oceanic islands. Eastern Atlantic: including St. Paul's Rocks (Refs. 13121, 52289). Western Indian Ocean: including Walter's Shoal, south of Madagascar. Western Pacific: including Middleton and Elizabeth Reefs. Eastern Pacific: Galápagos (Ref. 58896).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / umur
Maturity: Lm 230.0, range 215 - 245 cm
Max length : 370 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 1602); common length : 300 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 9253); Berat maksimum terpublikasi: 85.5 kg (Ref. 40637); Umur maksimum dilaporkan: 24 Tahun (Ref. 31395)
Duri punggung (Keseluruhan (total)): 0; duri punggung lunak (Keseluruhan (total)): 0; Duri dubur 0; Sirip dubur lunak: 0. Low inter-dorsal ridge present (Ref.9997). Dark grey above, light below, fins plain or with slightly dusky tips (Ref. 9997).
A common but habitat-limited tropical shark found close inshore to well as offshore near or on insular or continental shelves (Ref. 244). Prefers clear water with coral and rocky bottoms (Ref. 244). Although a coastal pelagic species, it is capable of crossing considerable distances of open ocean between islands (at least 50 km) (Ref. 244). Juveniles restricted to shallower water, in 25 m or less (Ref. 244; 37816). Found in superficial aggregations (Ref. 244). Tends to feed near the bottom but may take bait from the surface (Ref. 5485). Feeds mainly on bottom fishes, also squid and octopi (Ref. 244). In the Galapagos Is. it preys on sea lions and marine iguanas (Ref. 28023). Inquisitive and sometimes aggressive, displaying a 'hunch' position ( arched back, raised head and lowered caudal and pectoral fins, while twisting and rolling) near divers that may be followed by biting (Ref. 58085). Viviparous (Ref. 50449). 6 to 16 young of 57 to 80 cm are born per litter (Ref. 1602).
Viviparous, with a yolk sac placenta (Ref. 244). 6 to 16 young born at 60-80 cm (Ref. 26346). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)
Status IUCN Red List (Ref. 125652)
ancaman kepada manusia
Traumatogenic (Ref. 4690)
Perikanan: nilai komersial kecil
AcuanBudidaya airprofil budidaya airStrainGenetikaFrekuensi alelDiturunkanPenyakit-penyakitPengolahanNutrientsMass conversion
mitraGambarStamps, Coins Misc.Suara-suaraCiguateraKecepatanTipe renangArea insangOtolithsOtakPenglihatan / visi
muat turun XML
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 15 - 28.2, mean 23.8 °C (based on 1899 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00490 (0.00224 - 0.01069), b=3.08 (2.90 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 8.8 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Daya lenting (Ref. 120179
): sangat rendah, Waktu penggandaan populasi minimum lebih dari 14 tahun (Fec=4).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (73 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 6.25 [0.84, 22.96] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.331 [0.095, 0.929] mg/100g ; Protein = 22.1 [19.0, 24.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.1 [0.0, 0.2] g/100g ; Selenium = 40.7 [10.4, 109.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 50.1 [17.9, 139.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.454 [0.208, 0.914] mg/100g (wet weight);