Himantura uarnak (Gmelin, 1789)
Honeycomb stingray
Pagi,  Bitoonan,  Budang,  Dahunan,  Katongganon,  Kilkigan,  Pagi,  Paging bulik,  Paging dahunan,  Paging sulatan,  Pangladan,  Pilisan
Himantura uarnak
photo by Randall, J.E.

Family:  Dasyatidae (Stingrays), subfamily: Urogymninae
Max. size:  200 cm WD (male/unsexed); max.weight: 150 kg
Environment:  reef-associated; brackish; marine; depth range 20 - 50 m, amphidromous
Distribution:  Indo-Pacific: Persian Gulf (Ref.80050); Red Sea (and eastern Mediterranean via Suez Canal) to southern Africa and French Polynesia, north to Taiwan, south to Australia. Also in the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819). Collected from the estuary of the River Ganges (Ref. 33178). This name has been used for a number of similar spotted species (Ref. 6871). Probably a species complex (Ref. 35766). Its identity has been confused in many publications and Micronesian specimens should be re-examined (Ref. 37816).
Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 0-0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 0-0; Anal spines: 0-0; Anal soft rays: 0-0. Huge stingray with conspicuous dark spots on a light brown disc; spots well-spaced in young but crowded to form reticulated pattern in adult; white ventrally; tail marked with bands of black and white; snout sharply pointed; disc with narrowly rounded outer corners, and tail long, slender and nearly three times body length when intact, with no caudal finfolds; disc without thorns but with band of flat denticles along midback (in adults); usually 1 medium-sized sting on tail (Ref. 5578).
Biology:  Common off sandy beaches and in shallow estuaries and lagoons; also found in sandy areas of coral reefs (Ref. 9710). Also offshore down to 50 m depth (Ref. 5578). May enter fresh water (Ref. 5578). Feeds on small fishes, bivalves, crabs, shrimps, worms (Ref. 3263) and jellyfishes (Ref. 37816). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Common catch of the demersal tangle net, bottom trawl, longline and beach seine fisheries (Ref.58048). Popular angling fish (Ref. 3263). Not esteemed as a food fish (Ref. 3263). Used in Chinese medicine (Ref. 12166). Tail is used as It is parasitised by the monogeneans Dendromonocotyle colorni and Dendromonocotyle ukuthena on the dorsal skin surface (Ref. 124058).
IUCN Red List Status: Endangered (EN); Date assessed: 27 November 2020 (A2d) Ref. (126983)
Threat to humans:  venomous
Country info:  Utilized as a food fish (Ref. 2858). Reported occurrence in Lake Naujan and Moncayo on the upper Agusan River by Herre (Ref. 280), may involved another species (Ref. 47737). Also Ref. 3263.

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