Teleostei (teleosts) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Haemulidae
(Grunts) > Haemulinae
Etymology: Haemulon: Greek, haimaleos = bloody (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 10 - 210 m (Ref. 27283). Subtropical; 35°N - 33°S, 98°W - 33°W
Western Atlantic: Bermuda, Florida (USA), western Bahamas, and Gulf of Mexico to Brazil. Also Caribbean, including Antilles (Ref. 26938).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 28.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 17.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3798)
soft rays: 8. Scale rows below lateral line oblique; head entirely scaled except for front of snout near upper lip and front of chin; snout very short; the maxilla not reaching a vertical through center of eye; silvery gray with five dusky yellow stripes, the two lowermost the broadest (Ref. 13442).
Occurs along exposed outer or deeper reefs. Found on semi-hard substrates (Ref. 5217). Maximum depth down to 210 m was recorded from individuals observed by submersibles (Ref. 27283). Feeds mainly on plankton (Ref. 5217); small crustaceans (Ref. 26938).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 21.4 - 27.8, mean 25.5 °C (based on 392 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.45 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (18 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 34.2 [13.8, 82.1] mg/100g; Iron = 0.663 [0.314, 1.363] mg/100g; Protein = 19.2 [17.2, 21.1] %; Omega3 = 0.141 [0.067, 0.284] g/100g; Selenium = 17.4 [7.6, 38.1] μg/100g; VitaminA = 82.8 [27.5, 263.2] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.829 [0.501, 1.409] mg/100g (wet weight);