Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 25 - 549 m (Ref. 6793). Temperate; 62°N - 27°N, 156°W - 113°W
Eastern Pacific: Kodiak Island, Alaska to Guadalupe Island, Baja California, Mexico. Rare south of San Francisco, California.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 23.0, range 20 - ? cm
Max length : 41.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9015); max. reported age: 87 years (Ref. 39247)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 6 - 7. Head spines very strong to strong - nasal, preocular, supraocular, postocular, tympanic and parietal spines present, nuchals usually absent, coronal spine absent (Ref. 27437). 2nd anal fin spine long (Ref. 27437). Caudal fin slightly indented (Ref. 6885). Orange or yellow with greenish mottling dorsally, lighter ventrally; 4 to 5 squarish white spots tinged or boarded with light pink or yellow on back (Ref. 27437).
Found on soft bottoms (Ref. 2850). Often caught on commercial longlines set below 108 m (Ref. 27437). Viviparous (Ref. 34817).
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 4.9 - 8.6, mean 6.3 °C (based on 84 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00499 - 0.02004), b=3.09 (2.92 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (tmax=87; tm=10).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100).