Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 10 - 400 m. Subtropical; 51°N - 30°N, 11°W - 42°E
Southeast Atlantic: Atlantic coast from Morocco to the English Channel. Also known from the Mediterranean and Black Sea.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 10.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397)
(total): 11 - 12;
soft rays: 15 - 16. Gill membranes not forming a fold across isthmus. Tentacles on nasal opening, above eye and on nape near first dorsal fin ray. Dentaries joined by suture. Lateral line reduced, discontinuous. Anterior part of dorsal fin conspicuously higher than posterior part.
Adults are found over hard bottoms. Mainly nocturnal, they feed on small invertebrates. Oviparous. Eggs are demersal and adhesive (Ref. 205), and are attached to the substrate via a filamentous, adhesive pad or pedestal (Ref. 94114). Eggs are laid under mussel-shells or stones and guarded by the male (Ref. 5981). Larvae are planktonic, often found in shallow, coastal waters (Ref. 94114). Spawn in April (Marseille) or July (England) (Ref. 5981).
Eggs are laid under mussel-shells or stones and guarded by male (Ref. 5981).
Wheeler, A., 1992. A list of the common and scientific names of fishes of the British Isles. J. Fish Biol. 41(suppl.A):1-37. (Ref. 5204)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 11 - 17.1, mean 13.9 °C (based on 237 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00832 (0.00644 - 0.01074), b=3.01 (2.93 - 3.09), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.43 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 80 [19, 235] mg/100g; Iron = 1.14 [0.42, 4.30] mg/100g; Protein = 3.21 [0.00, 6.94] %; Omega3 = 0.348 [0.150, 0.795] g/100g; Selenium = 23.3 [4.9, 67.0] μg/100g; VitaminA = 18.7 [6.0, 56.8] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.869 [0.449, 1.739] mg/100g (wet weight);