Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Centrarchiformes
(Basses) > Kuhliidae
Etymology: Kuhlia: Because of Heindrich Kuhl, 1797-1821; researcher also with lizards (Gekkonidae).
More on author: Lacepède.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; reef-associated; catadromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 5 m (Ref. 86942). Tropical; 20°C - 26°C (Ref. 2060)
Africa to Asia and Oceania: East Africa to Samoa, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to Queensland, Australia and New Caledonia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 26.5, range 26 - 27 cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5329); common length : 25.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2847); max. published weight: 2.7 kg (Ref. 5329)
soft rays: 9 - 11. Diagnosis: Preorbital serrae 10-15 (obsolete in large specimens); body depth 2.6-3.0 in SL; mouth large for genus, maxilla reaching to below posterior half of eye; caudal fin emarginate, lobes somewhat rounded, caudal concavity 5.3-8.7 in head length (Ref. 41640). Reduced number of lateral line scales; 17-18(19) gillrakers on lower part of first bracnhial arch; body with spots (Ref. 79840).
Coloration: Silvery, the scales dorsally on body with black edges, those on side with a black bar or spot; juveniles with a broad black zone, edged above and below in white, in soft portion of dorsal fin, and each lobe of caudal fin with a large, white-edged black spot; black areas in these fins enlarge with growth until in adults most of these fins black (caudal with upper and lower edges and corners whitish) (Ref. 41640).
Primarily a freshwater inhabitant but may penetrate adjacent marine habitats (Ref. 41640). Adults occur in estuaries and the middle reaches of rivers; usually in relatively fast-flowing, clear streams (Ref. 2847, 79840). Usually in rainforests, as well as in rocky pools below waterfalls (Ref. 44894). Adults are omnivorous, feeding on small fishes, insects, crustaceans and fruits (figs) that drop into the water. Specific breeding habits are unknown, but adults move downstream into estuaries or to the sea to spawn (Ref. 44894). Neither anterolateral groove nor venom gland is present (Ref. 57406). Good food fish (Ref. 5329).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Presumably non-guarders (RF).
Randall, J.E. and H.A. Randall, 2001. Review of the fishes of the genus Kuhlia (Perciformes: Kuhliidae) of the Central Pacific. Pac. Sci. 55(3):227-256. (Ref. 41640)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 24.2 - 29.3, mean 28.4 °C (based on 2775 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5002 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01413 (0.00597 - 0.03345), b=3.06 (2.86 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.45 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (35 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 49.5 [26.4, 83.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.678 [0.420, 1.215] mg/100g ; Protein = 18 [17, 19] % ; Omega3 = 0.265 [0.141, 0.503] g/100g ; Selenium = 34.5 [17.7, 69.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 88.1 [26.8, 289.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.57 [1.06, 2.31] mg/100g (wet weight);