Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic. Tropical; 9°N - 13°S, 59°W - 34°W
South America: Atlantic coastal rivers from Guyana to northeastern Brazil.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3265); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3265); max. published weight: 33.30 g (Ref. 118626)
(total): 1. Three pair of barbels on rostral region, two pairs on lower jaw, one pair on posterior end of maxilla; end of maxilla barbel reaching pectoral fin insertion; large saddle-shaped bony plate with rugosa surface in front of dorsal fin, anterior margin of this plate waved but no deep medial incision; body yellow or gray-yellow dorsally, white ventrally (Ref. 13608).
Found in turbid waters over muddy bottoms in shallow coastal areas, also around estuaries (Ref. 3265), and coastal rivers (Ref. 39852). Food items include bottom-living invertebrates. Marketed fresh. Exported frozen (Ref. 5217). Reproduction period is probably between September and November. Egg diameter is 9-11 mm. Males practice mouth brooding of the eggs. (Ref. 35381).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Taylor, W.R. and N.A. Menezes, 1978. Ariidae. In W. Fischer (ed.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. West Atlantic (Fishing Area 31). volume 1. [pag. var.]. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3265)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Traumatogenic (Ref. 58010)
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 26.9 - 28.2, mean 27.5 °C (based on 66 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00617 (0.00404 - 0.00942), b=3.11 (2.98 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Prior r = 0.58, 95% CL = 0.38 - 0.87, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 85.4 [43.1, 173.7] mg/100g; Iron = 0.769 [0.461, 1.295] mg/100g; Protein = 16.2 [14.6, 18.1] %; Omega3 = 0.166 [0.089, 0.317] g/100g; Selenium = 67.3 [33.7, 136.1] μg/100g; VitaminA = 29.3 [12.1, 71.0] μg/100g; Zinc = 1.44 [0.97, 2.25] mg/100g (wet weight);