Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes
(Skates and rays) > Arhynchobatidae
Etymology: Bathyraja: Greek, bathys = deep + Latin, raja, -ae = a ray (Raja sp) (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 800 m (Ref. 11892), usually 20 - 200 m (Ref. 11892). Polar; 48°S - 54°S, 63°E - 79°E
Southern Ocean: considered endemic to the Kerguelen Plateau (Ref. 5159).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. )
Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 6.0 cm long and 3.4 cm wide (Ref. 41249). Frequently taken in commercial bottom hauls but not much utilized because of its small size (Ref. 5159).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs have horn-like projections on the shell (Ref. 205).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 1.6 - 3.9, mean 3 °C (based on 42 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00513 (0.00253 - 0.01042), b=3.12 (2.95 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): High to very high vulnerability (73 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 4.88 [0.73, 93.88] mg/100g; Iron = 0.289 [0.029, 3.844] mg/100g; Protein = 14.4 [12.6, 16.4] %; Omega3 = 0.446 [0.167, 1.203] g/100g; Selenium = 13.5 [2.3, 61.0] μg/100g; VitaminA = 6.87 [0.48, 87.04] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.277 [0.017, 3.184] mg/100g (wet weight);