Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Nemipteridae
(Threadfin breams, Whiptail breams)
Etymology: Parascolopsis: Greek, para in the side of + Greek, skolos = stake + Greek, ops = appearance (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; non-migratory; depth range 20 - 300 m (Ref. 58018). Tropical; 31°N - 1°N, 41°E - 101°E (Ref. 3810)
Indian Ocean: including the Persian Gulf; Gulf of Oman, Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 21.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 11441); common length : 10.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3810)
soft rays: 7. Head scales reaching forward to between level of anterior margin of eyes and posterior nostrils. Lower limb of preopercle naked. Posterior margin of suborbital smooth or with just a few tiny spines. Pectoral and pelvic fins long, reaching to or beyond level of anus. Axillary scale present. Color: Body rosy-orange; anal fin rosy; pectoral fin yellowish with 2 rudimentary rays.
Benthic on sand or mud bottoms in offshore waters (Ref. 30573). Feeds mainly on benthic invertebrates.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Russell, B.C., 1990. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 12. Nemipterid fishes of the world. (Threadfin breams, whiptail breams, monocle breams, dwarf monocle breams, and coral breams). Family Nemipteridae. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of nemipterid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(12):149p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 3810)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 18.2 - 26.7, mean 23.5 °C (based on 135 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5002 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01479 (0.00696 - 0.03143), b=2.98 (2.81 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (11 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 244 [136, 443] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.08 [0.57, 1.91] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.4 [16.6, 20.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.283 [0.156, 0.503] g/100g ; Selenium = 63.6 [32.1, 116.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 17.3 [5.3, 44.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.26 [0.79, 1.94] mg/100g (wet weight);