Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; eau douce; saumâtre démersal; pH range: 6.0 - 8.0; dH range: ? - 30; profondeur ? - 1 m (Ref. 105091). Tropical; 21°C - 25°C (Ref. 2060); 33°N - 5°N, 64°E - 97°E
Asia: Pakistan and Sri Lanka to Myanmar. Introduced elsewhare.
Length at first maturity / Taille / Poids / Âge
Maturity: Lm ?, range 12 - ? cm
Max length : 41.2 cm TL mâle / non sexé; (Ref. 125280); poids max. publié: 400.00 g (Ref. 125280)
Facultative air-breathing (Ref. 126274); Adults found mainly in ponds, ditches, swamps and marshes, but sometimes occur in muddy rivers. Recorded as having been or being farmed in rice fields (Ref. 119549). Can tolerate slightly brackish water. Omnivorous. Breed in confined waters during the monsoon months, but can breed in ponds, derelict ponds and ditches when sufficient rain-water accumulates. Oviparous, distinct pairing possibly like other members of the same family (Ref. 205). In great demand due to its medicinal value. Venomous fish, from its pectoral spines (Ref. 94495).
Eggs are deposited in a depression usually excavated by both parents in mud, in shallow water. Parents guard the eggs and young until they can fend for themselves which lasts for about one month (Ref. 6028).
Talwar, P.K. and A.G. Jhingran, 1991. Inland fishes of India and adjacent countries. Volume 2. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, i-xxii + 543-1158, 1 pl. (Ref. 4833)
Statut dans la liste rouge de l'IUCN (Ref. 126983)
Menace pour l'homme
Traumatogenic (Ref. 4716)
Utilisations par l'homme
Pêcheries: hautement commercial; Aquaculture: commercial; Aquarium: Commercial
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