Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 5 - 79 m (Ref. 9330). Subtropical; 37°N - 22°N
Eastern Pacific: Monterey Bay in California, USA to Gulf of California.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 63.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9330); max. published weight: 4.0 kg (Ref. 40637)
Inhabits muddy and sandy bottoms, from 4.6-79 m depth. Usually buried in bottoms. Feeds almost exclusively on crustaceans. Marketed fresh (Ref. 9330).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous (Ref. 101737). Distinct pairing (Ref. 205). Females produce numerous eggs in multiple spawnings during a prolonged spawning period (Ref. 101737).
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 18.2 - 23.3, mean 22.2 °C (based on 24 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00776 (0.00446 - 0.01352), b=3.17 (3.02 - 3.32), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.50 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (45 of 100).