Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; oceano-estuarine (Ref. 57987); depth range 10 - 90 m (Ref. 1371), usually 10 - 50 m (Ref. 35388). Temperate; 70°N - 44°N, 24°W - 22°E
Northeast Atlantic: around the British Isles and northward along the European coasts to northern Norway. Also found at the Faeroe Islands and Iceland.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 6.2  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1371)
soft rays: 41 - 43. Head relatively large, less than five times in SL. Skin fold above the upper lip with three pairs of lobes or small barbels. First fin ray followed by a row of small, fleshy filaments (Ref. 1371). One barbel on the lower jaw and four on the snout (Ref. 35388).
Found in the sublittoral zone, on sand or mud bottoms. Feed mostly on decapod crustaceans, lobsters, crabs, mysids and polychaetes (Ref. 3663). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Spawning may take place in deeper waters (Ref. 57987).
Probably pairs up during breeding (Ref. 205).
Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 7.7 - 12.3, mean 10.3 °C (based on 564 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00724 (0.00418 - 0.01256), b=3.15 (3.00 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.44 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 1.3 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (tm=1; tmax=3).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (16 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 79 [39, 186] mg/100g; Iron = 0.47 [0.24, 0.96] mg/100g; Protein = 17.6 [15.7, 19.4] %; Omega3 = 0.445 [0.215, 0.871] g/100g; Selenium = 12.5 [5.8, 34.8] μg/100g; VitaminA = 12.8 [3.4, 46.0] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.834 [0.570, 1.278] mg/100g (wet weight);