分類 / Names
共通名の | 類義語 | Catalog of Fishes(部類, 種) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
(Carps) > Cyprinidae
(Minnows or carps) > Cyprininae
Etymology: Carassius: Latinization of , karass, karausche, European crucian carp (Ref. 45335); auratus: From the words carassius--Latin of karass (common name for these fishes in Eurasia) and auratus, meaning gilded (Ref. 10294).
More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; 新鮮な水; 汽水性の 底生の漂泳性; pH range: 6.0 - 8.0; dH range: 5 - 19; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); 深さの範囲 0 - 20 m (Ref. 6898). Subtropical; 0°C - 41°C (Ref. 35682); 53°N - 22°N
Asia: native in East Asia, China and Japan (Ref. 6390). Introduced elsewhere. throughout the world with reported adverse ecological impact after introduction.
サイズ / 重さ / 年齢
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 48.0 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 27549); common length : 10.0 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 9987); 最大公表体重: 1.6 kg (Ref. 128900); 最大記録サイズ: 41 年 (Ref. 72468)
背面の脊椎 (合計): 3 - 4; 背鰭 (合計): 14-20; 肛門の骨 2-3; 臀鰭: 4 - 7; 脊つい: 30. Body stout, thick-set, caudal peduncle thick and short (Ref. 1998). Head without scales (Ref. 39167, 1998), broadly triangular (Ref. 1998), interorbital space broad, snout longer than eye diameter, maxillary reaching posterior nostril or not quite to eye (Ref. 39166), barbels lacking on upper jaw (Ref. 39104, 1998). Lateral line complete. Dorsal and anal fins with serrate bony spines, pelvic fins short, broad and thoracic. Nuptial tubercles of male fine, on opercle, sometimes on back and a few on pectoral fins. Hybridize readily with carp, hybrids intermediate in most characteristics (Ref. 1998). Caudal fin with 17-19 rays (Ref. 2196). Last simple anal ray osseous and serrated posteriorly; no barbels (Ref. 43281). Pigmentation: Wild-caught specimens, olive brown (Ref. 39168, 39104), slate olive, olive green, with a bronze sheen (Ref. 39104), silvery, grayish yellowish, gray-silver (Ref. 39169), through gold (often with black blotches) to creamy white (Ref. 1998); yellowish white or white below. Cultured forms vary through scarlet, red-pink, silver, brown, white, black and combinations of these colors (Ref. 39104).
Inhabit rivers, lakes, ponds and ditches (Ref. 5258, 10294) with stagnant or slow-flowing water (Ref. 30578). Occur in eutrophic waters, well vegetated ponds and canals (Ref. 59043). Live better in cold water. Feed mainly on plankton, benthic invertebrates, plant material and detritus (Ref. 59043). Goldfish lay eggs on submerged vegetation. Females spawn multiple times during the spawning period (Ref. 88808). Oviparous, with pelagic larvae. They last long in captivity (Ref. 7248). Maximum recorded salinity is 17 ppt (Ref. 39171), but unable to withstand prolonged exposure above 15 ppt (Ref. 39172, 39174). Used as an experimental species (Ref. 4537). Valued as ornamental fish for ponds and aquaria; edible but rarely eaten (Ref. 9987). Aquarium keeping: in groups of 5 or more individuals; minimum aquarium size 100 cm (Ref. 51539). Reported individual hooked by an angler in a lake in Poole, Dorset measured 40 cm (16 in), weighing 2.3 kg (Practical Fishkeeping, 2010).
Life cycle and mating behavior
成熟 | 繁殖 | 放精 | 卵 | 生産力 | 幼生
Cold water temperatures during the winter months are necessary for proper ova development (Ref. 44091). Spawning takes place in shallow water among weeds, often where willow roots grow exposed in water (Ref. 39171), also meadows inundated by spring flood (Ref. 39176). Spawning activity begin just before dawn (Ref. 39168), to midafternoon (Ref. 39177). Individual fish spawn 3-10 lots of eggs at intervals of 8-10 days (Ref. 39180). Juveniles need high temperature to grow. Eggs are sticky, attached to water plants or submerged objects (Ref. 59043). Females spawn multiple times during the spawning period (Ref. 88808).
Kottelat, M., A.J. Whitten, S.N. Kartikasari and S. Wirjoatmodjo, 1993. Freshwater fishes of Western Indonesia and Sulawesi. Periplus Editions, Hong Kong. 221 p. (Ref. 7050)
水産業: 商業; 水産養殖: 商業; ゲームフィッシュ: はい; 水族館・水槽: 高い商業の; 餌: occasionally
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01288 (0.01109 - 0.01496), b=3.03 (2.99 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
栄養段階 (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179
): 手段, １．４年～４．４年の倍増期間の最小個体群 (K=0.17; tm=1; tmax=30).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100).