Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; agua dulce; salobre demersal; pH range: 6.0 - 8.0; dH range: ? - 30; rango de profundidad ? - 1 m (Ref. 105091). Tropical; 21°C - 25°C (Ref. 2060); 33°N - 5°N, 64°E - 97°E
Asia: Pakistan and Sri Lanka to Myanmar. Introduced elsewhare.
Length at first maturity / Tamaño / Peso / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 12 - ? cm
Max length : 41.2 cm TL macho / no sexado; (Ref. 125280); peso máximo publicado: 400.00 g (Ref. 125280)
Facultative air-breathing (Ref. 126274); Adults found mainly in ponds, ditches, swamps and marshes, but sometimes occur in muddy rivers. Recorded as having been or being farmed in rice fields (Ref. 119549). Can tolerate slightly brackish water. Omnivorous. Breed in confined waters during the monsoon months, but can breed in ponds, derelict ponds and ditches when sufficient rain-water accumulates. Oviparous, distinct pairing possibly like other members of the same family (Ref. 205). In great demand due to its medicinal value. Venomous fish, from its pectoral spines (Ref. 94495).
Eggs are deposited in a depression usually excavated by both parents in mud, in shallow water. Parents guard the eggs and young until they can fend for themselves which lasts for about one month (Ref. 6028).
Talwar, P.K. and A.G. Jhingran, 1991. Inland fishes of India and adjacent countries. Volume 2. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, i-xxii + 543-1158, 1 pl. (Ref. 4833)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Traumatogenic (Ref. 4716)
Pesquerías: muy comercial; Acuicultura: comercial; Acuario: Comercial
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